The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation
Measurement (ARM) Program is a key component of the Department's
research strategy to address global climate change. The program
is a direct continuation of DOE's decade-long effort to improve
General Circulation Models (GCMs) and to provide reliable simulations
of regional and long-term climatic change in response to increasing
greenhouse gases. Three surface observation sites, collectively
called the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART), have been established
over the last five years. The sites are highly focussed observatories
for the study of important atmospheric processes, particularly
cloud/radiative forcing and feedback. Sites will operate over
decade time scales. The ARM web site is located at http://www.arm.gov.
The Tropical Western Pacific Ocean (TWP) (See
locale lies roughly between 10 N and 15 S latitude and 120
E to approximately 160 W longitude, about the same area as North
America. Geographically, this locale is characterized by the maritime
continental area in the southwest portion and essentially open
ocean in the northeast portion. Because of the large area, relative
inaccessibility, and predominance of ocean, this locale suffers
from a critical lack of climatological data from the ocean, the
atmosphere, and the interface. Observational methods practiced
here must be different than the methods used for the continental
The choice of the TWP
locale was dictated, in large part, by the ocean warm pool and
the deep convection associated with it. The linkages between the
ocean and the atmosphere are not well understood quantitatively.
ARM will contribute to our knowledge of this region by carrying
out high-quality observations over an extended period of time.
In order to do so, however, we require: (a) long-term measurements
of surface fluxes over the ocean; (b) simultaneous measurements
of boundary-layer structure and cloud properties; and (c) spatially
extended measurements of atmospheric properties.
Research at BNL
focuses on the important over-the-ocean measurement program within
the TWP implementation strategy. However, the early phases of
this program must deal primarily with instrumentation. The following
tasks are presently underway:
- Buoy-borne Insolation Network. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA) is maintaining a set of 65--70 buoys, the TAO array,
across the tropical Pacific. NOAA is committed to maintaining
this array for the next decade. Broadband solar radiometers have
been integrated into the TAO buoy design and at the beginning
of 1998 the eight buoys along the 165\degrees E meridian began
collecting data. At this time 31 TAO buoys in the Pacific Ocean
and 12 buoys in the Atlantic have radiation measurements. In
addition, the Japan Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC)
plans to deploy 12 TRITON buoys in the far west Pacific
in the next year or so. (See http://oasd-www.das.bnl.gov/tao.)
- Shipboard Instrumentation. Climate studies require precise measurements over
decades. Accurate measurements of the air-sea exchange and atmospheric
physics from a moving platform such as a ship are extremely difficult
and we are developing a suite of highly robust yet accurate instruments
that will fill this need. (See SOAR project at http://oasd-www.das.bnl.gov/soar)
- Sea surface skin temperature. A special infrared thermometer to measure sea surface
skin temperature (SSST) is under development. The Infrared Sea
Surface Skin Temperature Radiometer (ISAR) is a collaborative
project whose goal is to measure SSST to 0.1 C accuracy completely
unattended. The ISAR will incorporate sensitive instrumentation
into a low-power package with spray/rain detection and automatic
weather doors. ISAR is an important contribution to the Volunteer
Ship Observing System described above. (See http://oasd-www.das.bnl.gov/instruments/isar.)
AOP COLLABORATIONS: Agencies
and Universities involved with the SOAR program.
- National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,
- TAO buoy radiation array.
- Research ships of opportunity; RONALD BROWN
- Scientific Computer System (SCS) data acquisition
- Experiment participation with various scientific
- Japan Marine Science and Technology Center,
- R/V Mirai SOAR installation
Island SOAR installation on Palau Island in the TWP.
- Continuing research collaboration through
- National Aeronautics and Space Administration,
- Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological
Interdisciplinary Ocean Studies (SIMBIOS) program operates PRP
packages on several research cruises.
Univ. of Miami, Rosential School of Marine Sciences and Atmospheric
- PRP measurements on all Marine Atmospheric
Emitted Radiance Interferometer (MAERI) cruises.
- Permanent PRP and TSI installations on luxury
cruise ships (Explorer of the Seas).
- Cross-Pacific transits (Seattle-Australia)
twice each year as part of the RSMAS-USCG collaborations.
Southampton Oceanographic Center, UK:
- Development of the Infrared Sea Surface Temperature
Autonomous Radiometer (ISAR) for underway autonomous SST measurement.
- University of Washington, USA:
- Polar Bird
cruises to Antarctica, 11-12/2000.
U.S. Coast Guard
- Currently negotiating to install SOAR systems
permanently on the USCG fleet of icebreakers.
- TOP BOTTOM
- Contact: R. Michael Reynolds Brookhaven
National Laboratory Bldg 490D Upton
631-344-7836 (f) 631-344-2060 firstname.lastname@example.org